Archive for: Family Planning


Population and Food Security: Africa’s Challenges

In Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 240 million people lack adequate food for a healthy, active lifestyle. This policy brief examines trends in population growth, fertility, and family planning in sub-Saharan Africa and makes the case that investments in women and family planning are necessary to fulfill future food needs. Food security and nutrition advocates must add their voices to support investments in women and girls and voluntary family planning as essential complements to agriculture and food policy solutions.

Year: 2012

Source: Population Reference Bureau

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    Making the Connection: Population Dynamics and Climate Compatible Development

    With support from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Population Reference Bureau and Worldwatch Institute assembled a working group of experts from the climate change, family planning, and development assistance communities to examine the complex relationships between population dynamics and climate compatible development. The group’s goal was to identify approaches and opportunities to advance policy dialogue and policy action to include population dynamics, with an emphasis on family planning, into climate compatible development. The action opportunities fall under four strategic approaches which provide a path forward for groups interested in connecting these issues and ensuring that increasing access to family planning is part of efforts to achieve climate compatible development. Linking population, family planning, and climate change is unconventional for many policymakers. Cross-sectoral initiatives that highlight and integrate synergies in development plans and climate finance programs could reap enormous benefits as we tackle climate change.

    Year: 2014

    Source: Population Reference Bureau | Worldwatch Institute

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      Linking Population, Health, and Environment in Fianarantsoa Province, Madagascar

      For over a decade community-based projects linking family planning, health, and environment efforts were active in Fianarantsoa province, Madagascar. This brief explores the evolution of cross-sectoral approaches and projects in Fianarantsoa province. The early cross-sectoral initiatives recognized that conservation and management of natural resources could be undermined by high fertility rates, and that addressing health needs would lead to a connection between communities and development practitioners. Evaluations have demonstrated that these projects have reached new audiences, were efficient, and fostered greater community involvement.

      Year: 2006

      Source: Population Reference Bureau

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        Linking Population, Fertility and Family Planning with Adaptation to Climate Change: Views from Ethiopia

        The effects of global climate change are being felt disproportionately in the world’s poorest countries, where people are the least able to cope. As climate change adaptation strategies gain international attention, it is important to show how people are dealing with the effects of climate change, how they could become more resilient to these effects, and how people and communities can adapt to climate change. Using qualitative methods, PAI, in collaboration with Miz-Hsab Research Center and the Joint Global Change Research Institute, explored how Ethiopian communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are the most vulnerable, what resources communities need to adapt to climate change, and the role of family planning and reproductive health in increasing resilience to climate change impacts. This study was one of the first to explore the linkages of population, fertility and family size with aspects of vulnerability and resilience to climate change.

        Year: 2009

        Source: PAI

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          Investing in Family Planning: Key to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

          In this commentary, the authors explain how family planning can accelerate progress across the 5 SDG themes of People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace, and Partnership and why it is critical to achieving the goals and the post-2015 development agenda. Empowering women to choose the number, timing, and spacing of their pregnancies is not only a matter of health and human rights but also touches on many multisectoral determinants vital to sustainable development, including women’s education and status in society. Without universal access to family planning and reproductive health, the impact and effectiveness of other interventions will be less, will cost more, and will take longer to achieve. Global strategies and partnerships—and health decision makers at all levels—must leverage the abundance of available research, evidence, and the range of justifications presented here to prioritize family planning as a foundational component of health, rights, and long-term development strategies.

          Year: 2016

          Source: Global Health: Science and Practice

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            Integrating Population, Health, and Environment Programs with Contraceptive Distribution in Rural Ethiopia: A Qualitative Case Study

            In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA’s large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population–environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, the article proposes a framework to assess PHE integration.

            Year: 2015

            Source: Studies in Family Planning

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              Integrating Human and Animal Health for Conservation and Development: Findings From a Program Evaluation in Southwest Uganda

              This report documents the process through which a Ugandan conservation organization, Conservation through Public Health (CTPH), successfully integrated interventions traditionally seen as from different “domains” or “sectors” for the dual purposes of (1) reducing threats to mountain gorillas and their habitat and (2) improving the well-being of local communities directly dependent upon the health of the former (for ecotourism and natural resource use). CTPH received guidance from JSI in integrating family planning (FP) services to a quality standard, and increasing awareness of and demand for services among rural communities. This report describes activities undertaken between Oct 2006 and December 2008 and key results. It ends with an assessment of the potential for replication to increase coverage around this important Ugandan and World Heritage conservation area. Also presented are some lessons learned applicable to other initiatives aimed at extending access to FP around remote, biodiversity-priority areas and conserving the world’s biological richness.

              Year: 2010

              Source: John Snow, Inc. | Conservation Through Public Health | Evaluation and Research Technologies for Health

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                Integrating Family Planning Service Provision Into Community-Based Marine Conservation

                This study presents Blue Ventures’ experiences incorporating sexual and reproductive health services within a pre-existing community-based marine conservation initiative in Madagascar as part of an integrated population, health and environment (PHE) programme. The findings emphasize the mutually beneficial synergies, supporting both public health and conservation objectives, which can be created by integrating sexual and reproductive health services into more conventional biodiversity conservation activities. This PHE approach demonstrates the inextricable link between reproductive health and resource use by providing practical, immediate and lasting benefits to public health, gender equity, food security and biodiversity conservation.

                Year: 2012

                Source: Oryx—The International Journal of Conservation

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                  Integrating Family Planning Promotion Into the Work Of Environmental Volunteers: A Population, Health and Environment Initiative in Kenya

                  Although the potential advantages of linked population and environment programs are increasingly acknowledged, evidence is still limited regarding the feasibility and acceptability of PHE initiatives. In some of the best known PHE models, such as those implemented in the Philippines and Madagascar, health promotion was added to environmental initiatives through the intervention of community health workers. Less is known about the ability of environmental workers to assume a direct role in health promotion. To help fill this evidence gap, the Program Research for Strengthening Services (PROGRESS) project, which was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development to improve access to family planning services, teamed with the Green Belt Movement (GBM), a Kenyan nongovernmental organization dedicated to environmental conservation and community development. PROGRESS and GBM conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the following issues: (1) whether GBM’s frontline environmental outreach workers, known as Green Volunteers, could lead family planning promotion activities and (2) how communities would react to Green Volunteers’ promoting potentially sensitive messages about contraception. We used process monitoring and post-intervention data collection to assess the feasibility and acceptability of Green Volunteers’ implementing a PHE intervention and to explore the potential of this approach for expanding access to family planning information and services. In addition, we examined the costs of the intervention to evaluate affordability.

                  Year: 2015

                  Source: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health

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                    Integrating Family Planning Into Other Development Sectors

                    Evidence confirms that family planning contributes to broad development goals of poverty reduction, enhanced education, environmental sustainability, and gender equality, but improving access to contraception has largely remained an effort contained within the health sector. While development programs outside the health sector increasingly recognize the connections between improving family planning and reaching their own goals, more evidence is needed on whether and how such efforts can work, and what types of models might be replicated and scaled up.

                    The FHI 360 PROGRESS project (2008-2013) added to the evidence base on multi-sector integration, providing guidance on how development organizations can successfully expand their program model to include family planning services. Among these was the Green Belt Movement (Kenya) and Conservation Through Public Health (Uganda). Working closely with partners, PROGRESS developed, implemented, and evaluated interventions, and then synthesized lessons learned and packaged materials for use in replicating and scaling up these interventions.

                    Year: 2013

                    Source: FHI 360 | Progress Project

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