Archive for: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights


Voluntary Family Planning to Minimise and Mitigate Climate Change

Simply put, climate change is caused by excessive production of green-house gases. As highlighted by the late Professor Tony McMichael, the “cause(s) of the causes” should not be overlooked. With climate change already close to an irreversible tipping point, urgent action is needed to reduce not only our mean (carbon) footprints but also the “number of feet”—that is, the growing population either already creating large footprints or aspiring to do so. Wise and compassionate promotion of contraceptive care and education in a rights based, culturally appropriate framework offers a cost effective strategy to reduce greenhouse gases. This article outlines the evidence for voluntary accessible family planning as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.

Year: 2016

Source: British Medical Journal

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    The Interaction of Human Population, Food Production, and Biodiversity Protection

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings—especially for food—imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women’s education, and achieving gender equality.

    Year: 2017

    Source: Science

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      State of World Population 2009: Facing a Changing World: Women, Population, and Climate

      This 2009 flagship report argues that reproductive health care, including family planning, and gender relations could influence the future course of climate change and affect how humanity adapts to rising seas, worsening storms and severe droughts. Women, especially impoverished women in developing countries, bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but are often largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather. The report cites research demonstrating women’s higher vulnerability in natural disasters—especially where incomes are low and status differences between men and women are high. The international community’s fight against climate change is more likely to be successful if policies, programmes and treaties take into account the needs, rights and potential of women. The report shows that investments that empower women and girls—particularly education and health—bolster economic development, reduce poverty, and have a beneficial impact on climate change.

      Year: 2009

      Source: United Nations Population Fund

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        Population, Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights and Sustainable Development: Forging a Common Agenda

        This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing “population”, become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority.

        Year: 2014

        Source: Reproductive Health Matters

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          Population, Health, and Environment (PHE) Community-Based Distribution and Peer Education System: Train-the-Trainer Guide for Training PHE Community-Based Distributors and PHE Adult Peer Educators Working on Integrated PHE Activities

          This manual was developed to train individuals to integrate community-based family planning and health into PHE projects through community-based distribution and peer education. The curriculum shows how community-based distributors (CBDs) and Peer Educators (PEs) can be trained to discuss basic ecology, PHE linkages, and reproductive health/family planning within a PHE context. The modules include international family planning norms and guidance on sexually-transmitted infections/diseases. This training was field-tested in Tanzania, Zambia and Ethiopia. It is best for: 1) training-of-trainers events where facilitators learn how to train PHE CBDs and PHE Adult PEs on community-based education and distribution of family planning methods within the context of an integrated PHE intervention; and 2) workshops where local trained facilitators train PHE CBDs and PHE Adult PEs who work on integrated PHE activities.

          Year: 2011

          Source: The BALANCED Project

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            Population, Health and Environment in Africa and Asia: An Evaluation of WWF’s USAID and Johnson & Johnson-Supported Projects

            This report describes the results of a 2007 evaluation of WWF (World Wildlife Fund) PHE (Population, Health and Environment) projects sponsored by Johnson & Johnson and USAID (the U.S. Agency for International Development). The PHE sites were located in Africa and Asia, where human-environment interactions are in constant flux, human populations are growing rapidly, and they depend most directly on and affect most profoundly some of the richest forest and marine ecosystems on Earth. The PHE projects facilitated basic health care and RH (reproductive health) provision with the working thesis that improving human health and environmental conservation jointly adds value to each independently. The report also recommends future actions on sustainability and scale up of PHE approaches, improved data collection and monitoring and technical support.

            Year: 2008

            Source: World Wildlife Fund

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              Population, Health and Environment (PHE) Youth Peer Education: A Guide for Training Youth Peer Educators Working on Integrated PHE Activities

              This guide was adapted from the Youth Sexuality, Reproductive Health and Environmental Education: Training Manual for Youth Peer Educators developed by PATH Foundation Philippines Inc. (PFPI) under its Integrated Population and Coastal Resources Management (IPOPCORM) initiative and other resources. It incorporates international family planning norms and guidance on sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), including the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (WHO 2004), Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers (WHO/RHR and JHU/CCP 2007), Contraceptive Technology (Hatcher et al. 2007), and Sexually Transmitted and Other Reproductive Tract Infections: A Guide to Essential Practice (WHO 2005).

              Year: 2011

              Source: The BALANCED Project

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                Population, Health and Environment (PHE) Community-based Distribution and Peer Education System: A Guide for Training PHE Community-based Distributors

                This training guide was developed to train population, health and environment (PHE) Community-based Distributors (CBDs) who work on integrated PHE activities. A PHE CBD is someone who is trained to provide information on PHE, family planning (FP) methods, and the stocking and sales of FP commodities. This training guide can be used to train new PHE CBDs over a two-day period. It contains 12 modules covering basic topics that PHE CBDs need to know to discuss basic ecology, PHE linkages, and reproductive health/family planning with community members within a PHE context. The modules are based on international norms and guidance as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). This Guide is based on the publication “Population, Health and Environment (PHE) Community-based Distribution and Peer Education System: Train-the-Trainer Guide for Training PHE Community-based Distributors and PHE Adult Peer Educators,” which is geared for training master trainers who will, in turn, train PHE adult peer educators and PHE CBDs.

                Year: 2012

                Source: The BALANCED Project

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                  Population, Health and Environment (PHE) Community-Based Distribution and Peer Education System: A Guide for Training PHE Adult Peer Educators

                  This training guide was developed to train PHE Adult Peer Educators (PEs) who work on integrated PHE activities. This training guide contains 12 modules covering basic topics that PHE Adult Peer Educators need to know to discuss basic ecology, PHE linkages, and reproductive health/family planning with community members within a PHE context. This Guide is based on the BALANCED Project publication, “Population, Health and Environment (PHE) Community-based Distribution and Peer Education System: Train-the-Trainer Guide for Training PHE Community-based Distributors and PHE Adult Peer Educators.”

                  Year: 2011

                  Source: The BALANCED Project

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                    Linking Population, Fertility and Family Planning with Adaptation to Climate Change: Views from Ethiopia

                    The effects of global climate change are being felt disproportionately in the world’s poorest countries, where people are the least able to cope. As climate change adaptation strategies gain international attention, it is important to show how people are dealing with the effects of climate change, how they could become more resilient to these effects, and how people and communities can adapt to climate change. Using qualitative methods, PAI, in collaboration with Miz-Hsab Research Center and the Joint Global Change Research Institute, explored how Ethiopian communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are the most vulnerable, what resources communities need to adapt to climate change, and the role of family planning and reproductive health in increasing resilience to climate change impacts. This study was one of the first to explore the linkages of population, fertility and family size with aspects of vulnerability and resilience to climate change.

                    Year: 2009

                    Source: PAI

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